Obesity, Smoking and Hypertension Lower Vaccine-induced Antibody Production

A new study published on a pre-print server has revealed that antibody response can be blunted in people with certain risk factors shortly after the second dose of vaccine against SARS-CoV-2. Among the major risk factors for complicated COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2, adiposity and excess visceral fat are certainly those that endanger the infected individuals.

Other important ones are diabetes, hypertension, chronic lung disease, and smoking. The study included 86 healthcare workers that underwent vaccinations against COVID-19 with Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 mRNA vaccine. Consequently, blood samples were taken for the analysis before the first shot and one to four weeks after the second shot. Antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 were measured by using a commercially available sandwich electrochemiluminescence assay.

This study has shown that patients with central obesity had lower titers of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in comparison to those without central obesity; furthermore, smokers exhibited a blunted immune response when compared to non-smokers, which was also the case when comparing individuals with increased blood pressure or lipids to those with normal levels. A detailed analysis has also shown that higher circumference of the waist, smoking, increased blood pressure, and longer time since second vaccine dose was linked to lower titers of antibodies – Independent of body mass index, gender and/or age. Smokers or individuals with central obesity and/or hypertension could benefit from earlier vaccine boosters or different vaccine schedules and more studies are needed for that same. 

Ref link: https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.04.13.21255402v1